The F-16C/D is the current production version of the Fighting Falcon, the C being the single-seat version and the D being the two-seat version. It was introduced in 1984 and was intended to make the F-16 capable of all-weather operations and compatible with Beyond Visible Range (BVR) missiles such as the AIM-7 Sparrow and later the AIM-120 AMRAAM. This deficiency had been particularly obvious in operations over Europe, where the weather is generally bad much of the time.
The improvements introduced by the F-16C/D were originally known as the MSIP Stage II, or Block 25. This was redesignated F-16C/D in 1981. So F-16C/Ds all begin with Block 25. The first F-16C was 83-1118, which flew for the first time on June 15, 1984 under the controls of company test pilot Kevin Dwyer. The first Block 25 F-16D (83-1174) was flown on September 14, 1984, piloted by John Fergione and Jim Smolka. The new Fighting Falcon variant was introduced on the production line in December of 1984.
Flight testing of the new F-16C revealed problems, most of which were associated with software difficulties. Development lead times which were once paced by hardware problems were now becoming paced by software bugs, and there was a shortage of people who understood both computers and airplanes.
The F-16C/D has not been produced by the four European NATO partners, but export versions of the F-16C/D built at Fort Worth have been shipped to overseas customers such as Israel, Egypt, South Korea, Turkey, Greece, and Bahrain. In addition, Korean and Turkish orders have involved some local assembly of the F-16C/D.
Externally, the F-16C is almost identical to the F-16A. The only significant external difference is the introduction on the F-16C of an enlarged triangular base or "island" on the rear fuselage leading up to the vertical fin, with a small blade antenna protruding upward from it. This extra space was originally intended for the Westinghouse/ITT AN/LQ-165 Airborne Self-Protection Jammer (ASPJ) that is used on Navy aircraft. The USAFs ASPJ program became mired in controversy in 1989-90, and the USAF withrew from the project in January 1990. As a result, the ASPJ was never fitted to the F-16. The UHF radio blade antenna protudes at an angle of 35 degree sweepback on the forward base of the vertical fin. The same antenna was internal on the F-16A/B and was hidden underneath a dielectric panel.
Most of the differences between the F-16A/B and F-16C/D versions are internal. The F-16C/D employs the Westinghouse AN/APG-68(V) multi-mode radar with better range, sharper resolution, and expanded operating modes. The AN/APG-68(V) was a considerable advancement over the APG-66 of the F-16A/B. The planar array in the nose provides numerous air-to-air modes, including range-while-search, uplook and velocity search, single target track, raid cluster resolution, and track-while-scan for up to 10 targets. Beyond-visible-range capability has been added in the form of a high-PRF track mode to provide illumination for guidance of the AIM-7 Sparrow semi-active radar homing missile. For air-to-ground work, the modes that are available include maritime, fixed and moving target, ground mapping, Doppler beam sharpening, ranging, beacon, and target freeze. The beacon mode is used for navigation fixes and for bombing offset. The maritime modes include a real beam mapping, sea search, fixed target track, and ground moving target indication and track. There is also a freeze mode. The fixed ground target modes include a real beam ground mapping mode, FTT mode, expanded display mode, and Doppler beam sharpening mode. The moving ground target modes include real beam ground mapping, GMTI or TMTT, expanded display, and freeze. The radar is capable of handling the guidance of the AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missile.
The pilot of the F-16C/D has a larger HUD. The function keypad is located at the base of the HUD (it was located in a console to the left in earlier F-16A/Bs). A data display with key information items is located beside the HUD.
The Block 25 Fighting Falcons were initally delivered with the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-200 engine, which had a series of teething problems. These aircraft were later retrofitted with either the F100-PW-220 engine (a "new-build" powerplant) or the F100-PW-220E (a rebuild of an existing -200 engine). These newer engines are equipped with a Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC), which helps with stall-free performance and is more reliable.
The Block 25 Fighting Falcons employ the ALR-69 radar warning receiver and carry two ALE-40 chaff/flare dispensers.
The modifications resulted in a maximum take-off weight increase to 43,300 pounds. The beyond-visible-range capability and the ability to deliver precision ground attacks were greatly improved over the F-16A/B.
Following initial deliveries to overseas units, the 61st TFTS of the 56th TFW stationed at MacDill AFB in Florida became the first continental US unit to receive the F-16C/D, getting its first planes in April of 1986 and becoming operational in October of 1988. A total of 209 Block 25 F-16Cs and 35 Block 25 F-16Ds were built. With the availability of later F-16C/D blocks, most of these Block 25 F-16C/Ds have been transferred to Air National Guard units.
83-1125/1140 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25A Fighting Falcon 83-1141/1165 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25B Fighting Falcon 83-1174/1177 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25 Fighting Falcon 83-1178/1180 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25A Fighting Falcon 83-1181/1185 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25B Fighting Falcon 84-1212/1246 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25C Fighting Falcon 84-1247/1286 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25D Fighting Falcon 84-1287/1318 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25E Fighting Falcon 84-1319/1323 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25C Fighting Falcon 84-1324/1327 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25D Fighting Falcon 84-1328/1331 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25E Fighting Falcon 84-1374/1388 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25E Fighting Falcon 84-1389/1395 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 84-1396/1397 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1399 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1401 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1403/1407 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1409 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1411 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1413 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1415/1421 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1423 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1425 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1427 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1429/1431 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1433 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1435 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1437 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1439 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1441 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1443 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1445 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1447 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1452 General Dynamics F-16C Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1506/1508 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1510 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1512 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25F Fighting Falcon 85-1514/1516 General Dynamics F-16D Block 25F Fighting Falcon
This list is almost certainly incomplete and I would (as always) appreciate hearing from anyone who has additions or corrections.
Engine: One Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 turbofan, 23,770 lb.s.t. with afterburning or one General Electric F110-GE-100 turbofan, 28,984 lb.s.t with afterburning. Performance (at 27,245 pounds with F100 engine): Maximum short-endurance speed: Mach 2.02 (1333 mph) at 40,000 feet. Maximum sustained speed Mach 1.89 (1247 mph) at 40,000 feet. Tactical radius (hi-lo-hi interdiction on internal fuel with six 500-lb bombs) 360 miles. Maximum ferry range 2450 miles with maximum external fuel. Dimensions: wingspan 31 feet 0 inches, length 49 fee5 4 inches, height 16 feet 8 1/2 inches, wing area 300 square feet. Weights: 18,238 pounds empty, 26,463 pounds normal loaded (air-to-air mission), 42,300 pounds maximum takeoff. Armament: One 20-mm M61A1 rotary cannon and up to 12,430 pounds of ordnance or fuel distibuted between one fuselage centerline and six underwing stations, plus wingtip stations. An AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile is normally carried on each wingtip station.